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2022考研英語閱讀強化備考:閱讀中錯誤選項的部分特征總結

發布日期:2021-07-26 10:50:06  來源:中公考研}

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一、太過肯定或太過否定的表達

考研英語閱讀選用的是西方核心報刊雜志的學術性議論文,因為學術性這一性質,文章表達的內容都相對客觀以及理性,不會出現有失偏頗的觀點,即不會太過,肯定也不會太過否定,萬事留有余地。所以,當選項當中出現太過于肯定或者太過于否定的表達,如果文章當中沒有明確表明的話,大概率是一個錯誤選項。

舉例:(2018年英語二text4)

Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you reprioritize your day – in particular how we craft our to-do lists. Tim Harford, author of Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups: some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities; others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail, day by day.

While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks, they were wrong: the detailed daily plans demotivated students. Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective, while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.

37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that .

A. students are hardly motivated by monthly goals

B. detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected

C. distractions may actually increase efficiency

D. daily schedules are indispensable to studying

解析:該題根據第二段第一句,可得出正確答案為B。錯誤選項中,D選項意為:日常計劃對于學習而言不可或缺。其中“不可或缺”這一表意太過絕對,大概率可判斷為錯誤選項。

二、偷換概念(偷換中心詞)

閱讀當中錯誤選項還有一個特點,就是喜歡偷換概念。之前我們講過偷換概念的一種形式,就是擴大表述范圍。但這次講的偷換概念,指的是偷換中心詞。比如,原文中表述:小明喜歡吃草莓味的餅干。此時某個選項中就可能表述為:小明喜歡吃草莓味的糖果。雖然都是草莓味,但是中心詞已經由餅干變成了糖果,這是完全不一樣的。

舉例:(2012年英語一text4)

Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education, where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even though there is plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable, teachers’ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones.

As the cost to everyone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. In Wisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline Republican governor. But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too.

39. The example of the unions in Wisconsin shows that unions

[A]often run against the current political system.

[B]can change people’s political attitudes.

[C]may be a barrier to public-sector reforms.

[D]are dominant in the government.

解析:該題由第一段第一句以及第二段第一句可知,正確答案為C。而錯誤選項中,A、B都為偷換概念。原文中二段首句中出現了politician政客,而A、B中分別出現了political system政治體系、political attitudes政治態度,三者都與政治有關,但是中心詞卻分別為人、體系、態度,截然不同。

三、“interest”

這一詞表示的是“興趣”,偶爾會出現在選項當中,近幾年來出現該單詞的選項,都是一個錯誤選項。因為興趣代表著人的主觀判斷,主觀性是比較強的,如果文中沒有明確表示某人對某事物是否有興趣,則該選項就會變成主觀臆斷。命題人利用的就是看不懂文章的同學的猜測心理,讓同學們想“他應該是對這個事物有興趣吧?”而其實文章并沒有明確表示。

舉例:(2013年英語一text1)

Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.

24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

[A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.

[B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.

[C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.

[D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.

解析:該題由該段末句可知,正確答案為D。錯誤選項中,C選項意為:人們對買不起的衣服更感興趣,而原文中并沒有提及人們是否對此感興趣,因此該選項為主觀臆斷。

(2013年英語一text3)

Perhaps willfully, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future.

33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5?

[A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies.

[B] Technology offers solutions to social problem.

[C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise.

[D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive.

解析:該題由首句可知,正確答案為D。錯誤選項中,選項C意為:(人們)對科幻小說的興趣正在上升。而原文中并沒有提及人們是否對此感興趣,因此該選項為主觀臆斷。

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